African American, American slavery, Articles of Confederation, Black people, Direct tax, Enslavement of African People, Federal Ratio, History of the United States, Representation, Slavery, Taxation, Three-Fifths Compromise, United States Constitution
“With Eyes Open and Complete Knowledge”: The Three-Fifths Compromise
The “three-fifths compromise” was ratified in 1788 and reads as follows:
Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.
Listen to the podcast on the three-fifths compromise:
- GOP Nominee In Virginia Called Three-Fifths Clause An ‘Anti-Slavery Amendment’ (tpmdc.talkingpointsmemo.com)
- Black Republican Virginia Lt. Gov Nominee Loves Segregation, Being Three-Fifths Of A Person (wonkette.com)
- VA Lt. Gov. Nominee Called Three-Fifths Clause An ‘Anti-Slavery Amendment’ (radio.foxnews.com)
Observing the Illusion of Historical Time
There have been many calendar systems in the world. There are calendars that are no longer in use, and we can presume that calendars have been lost to us over time. Because of the influence of western civilization, the Gregorian calendar is in common use today. Much like a shared language, calendars orient people to large spans of time. The Gregorian calendar is used as a universal standard, and is important in discussing historical research and scholarship. Calendar dating helps students and scholars organize data and information. “The Guide to Historical Dating—Centuries” below is presented to assist in understanding the spans of time under discussion in reference to centuries (100 Year Increments). The Gregorian calendar can be complex, and the chart below is not meant to be an accurate rendering of the system, but rather a reference to following research and scholarship which uses century dating in the Common Era.
“Those Who Truly Understand and Appreciate the Past can Effectively Determine the Future.”–Katherine Bankole-Medina, History Is A State of Mind
- “Justice cannot sleep forever”: History and the Interminable Grandeur of Freedom-Seeking People (historyisastateofmind.wordpress.com)
- Some Thoughts on Getting In Touch With the History Realm (historyisastateofmind.wordpress.com)
- The Desire To Be Free As A Mental Disorder And The History Of Other Medical Anomalies: Part II (historyisastateofmind.wordpress.com)
- The Desire To Be Free As A Mental Disorder And The History Of Other Medical Anomalies: Part I (historyisastateofmind.wordpress.com)
- On the Glory of People and Kings: Abyssinia, the Battle of Adwa, and the Rise of the African Diaspora (historyisastateofmind.wordpress.com)
….But the enlightened sons of Africa in distant lands, are called to a far higher work than even this; a work which as much transcends mere civilization as the abiding interests of eternity outvie the transient concerns of time. To wrest a continent from ruin; to bless and animate millions of torpid and benighted souls; to destroy the power of the devil in his strongholds, and to usher therein light, knowledge, blessedness, inspiring hope, holy faith, and abiding glory, is, without doubt, a work which not only commands the powers of the noblest men, but is worthy the presence and the zeal of angels. It is just this work which now claims and calls for the interest and the activity of the sons of Africa. Its plainest statement and its simplest aspect, are sufficient, it seems to me, to move these men in every quarter of the world to profound sensibility, to deep resolve, to burning ardor. Such a grand and awful necessity, covering a vast continent, touching the best hopes, and the endless destiny of millions of men, ought, I think, to stir the souls of many a self-sacrificing spirit, and quicken him to lofty purposes and noble deeds. And when one considers that never before in human history has such a grand and noble work
been laid out in the Divine Providence, before the negro race, and that it rises up before them in its full magnitude now, at the very time when they are best fitted for its needs and requirements, it seems difficult to doubt that many a generous and godly soul will hasten to find his proper place in this great work of God and man, whether it be by the personal and painful endeavors of a laborer in the field of duty, or by the generous benefactions and the cheering incitements which serve to sustain and stimulate distant and tried workers in their toils and trials….
 “outvie”: to strive in competition, be a rival.
SOURCE: The Rev. Alex. Crummell, The Relations And Duties Of Free Colored Men In America To Africa. A Letter to Charles B. Dunbar, M.D., ESQ., Of New York City. Hartford: Press of Case, Lockwood And Company, 1861, pp. 53-54.
- Do You Know The History Of Juneteenth? Obnoxious History Lesson On 100 Facts About African Americans! (obnoxioustv.wordpress.com)
- US Presidents Seek Broader Ties to Africa (voanews.com)
- Africa still has high levels of poverty despite weathering economic crisis – Doni-Kwame (ghanabusinessnews.com)
- MAHAMA: A blueprint for Africa’s future (washingtontimes.com)